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Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. The recorded biological effects range from alterations in the synthesis rates and intracellular concentrations of different biomolecules, to DNA and protein damage, which may result in cell death, reproductive declines, or even cancer 1234567.
The intensities of radiation and durations of exposure in all these studies were ificantly smaller than those of corresponding рЯ•∞ meaning from a guy from natural EMFs in the terrestrial environment. Moreover, the field intensities applied in the studies were several orders of magnitude smaller than physiological fields in cell membranes, or fields generated by nerve and muscle excitations 10 Similarly, terrestrial electric and magnetic fields, or infrared radiation from every human body at normal temperature, have ificantly larger incident intensities and exposure durations on any human than most artificial EMF sources 1415 Why is then the first beneficial while the latter seem to be detrimental?
In the present study we shall attempt to explain theoretically that the increased adverse biological action of man-made EMFs is due to the fact that they are polarized in contrast to the natural ones. They are produced by large s of molecular, atomic, or nuclear transitions of random orientation and random phase difference between them except for the lasers which are coherent.
These are de-excitations of molecules, atoms, or atomic nuclei Each photon they consist of oscillates on a distinct random plane and therefore it has a different polarization. Moreover the different photons are not produced simultaneously but they have random phase differences among them. The plane of polarization is determined by the geometry of the circuit.
The above combinations with unequal amplitudes in elliptically polarized field of the same frequency These fields are accused for an association with cancer 78.
In case that the medium is biological tissue, the result is that all charged molecules will be forced to oscillate in phase with the field and on planes parallel to its polarization 19 Several oscillating electromagnetic fields of the same polarization - such as the fields from different antennas vertically oriented - may also produce constructive interference effects and thus, amplify at certain locations the local field intensity and the amplitude of oscillation of any charged particle within the medium and within living tissue.
At such locations, living tissue becomes more susceptible to the initiation of biological effects When the polarization is fixed e. Natural light from two or more different sources does not produce interference effects, except under the specific conditions of the Young experiment, where the light from a single source passes through two identical slits which - in turn - become two identical-coherent secondary sources 18 Unpolarized electromagnetic radiation can become polarized when it passes through anisotropic media, as are certain crystals.
In fluids gases and liquids the molecules are randomly oriented and macroscopically are considered isotropic inducing no polarization in the electromagnetic waves transmitted through them. Unpolarized natural light can become partly polarized to a small average degree after diffraction on atmospheric molecules, or reflection on water, mirrors, metallic surfaces, etc.
A plane harmonic electromagnetic wave in the vacuum or the air has electric and magnetic field intensity components, given by the equations:. Consider two incoherent, unpolarized electromagnetic rays with electric components E 1E 2reaching a certain point P in space at a certain moment t in time. Let us assume for simplicity that the two waves are plane harmonic. The two vectorsdue to the different polarizations oscillate on different planes.
Since the two waves are not polarized, their polarizations vary randomly with time. The resultant electric field electric component of the resultant electromagnetic wave each moment at point P, is given by the equation:. Even when the two component waves have the same frequency and phase, due to the randomly changing polarizations, the result is still the same. Although the sum average wave intensity due to superposition of natural unpolarized waves is the sum of individual average intensities each one depending on the square amplitude of individual electric field Eq.
Let us explain this in more detail: Consider many photons of natural unpolarized light superposed on each other at a particular point in space. Since all possible orientations have equal probabilities, the superposition of a large of such equal vectors applied on the same point in space will be the sum of vectors applied on the centre of a sphere with their ends equally distributed around the surface of the sphere. The sum of an infinite of such vectors all applied on the same point — centre of the sphere — and with their ends evenly distributed at all points of the sphere surface tends to become zero.
In other words, at any given location, any moment, the sum electric field of a large of incident photons of random polarization tends to be null, since the individual vectors are in all possible directions diminishing each other when superimposed destructive interference of electric vectors. Similarly for the sum magnetic field:.
They may only induce heat, i. When two waves of same polarization have opposite phases at another location, in other words, when their phase difference is:. The electrical components of two such waves plane harmonic waves of the same рЯ•∞ meaning from a guy and frequency reaching a certain location after having run different distances r 1 and r 2 from their two coherent sources, are given by the рЯ•∞ meaning from a guy.
Again, the amplitude E 0 of the resultant electric field electric component of the resultant electromagnetic waveis:. At the locations of destructive interference the electric field vectors of the two waves are anti-parallel and thus, both the resultant field and the resultant wave intensity are minimum Eqs.
Thus, for N of polarized coherent electromagnetic sources of the same polarization, frequency and different intensities, with electric components E 1E 2…, E Nit comes that at the locations of constructive interference, the resultant electric field is the sum electric field from all the individual sources e. That situation can create very sharp peaks of wave and field intensities at certain locations, not easily detectable by field meters, where any living organism may be exposed to peak electric and magnetic field intensities.
Any location along the midperpendicular to the distance d between two antennas is a location of constructive interference in the case of two identical antennas. All critical biomolecules are either electrically charged or polar This is fundamental to our understanding of the biological phenomena. Although all molecules oscillate randomly with much higher velocities due to thermal motion, this has no biological effect other than increase in tissue temperature.
But a coherent polarized oscillation of even millions of times smaller energy than average thermal molecular energy 26 can initiate biological effects. A forced-oscillation of mobile ions, induced by an external polarized EMF, can result in irregular gating of electrosensitive ion channels on the cell membranes. That was described in detail in Panagopoulos et al. According to this theory - the plausibility of which in actual biological conditions was verified by numerical test 27 - the forced-oscillation of ions in the vicinity of the voltage-sensors of voltage-gated ion channels can exert forces on these sensors equal to or greater than the forces known to physiologically gate these channels.
They interconvert between open and closed state, when the electrostatic force on the electric charges of their voltage sensors due to transmembrane voltage changes, transcends some critical value. The voltage sensors of these channels are four symmetrically arranged, transmembrane, positively charged helical domains, each one deated S4. Details on the structure and function of cation electrosensitive channels can be found in 1129 Consider e. The electric and the magnetic force on each ion due to any unpolarized field is zero Eq.
The general solution of Eq. The term in the solution, represents a constant displacement, but has no effect on the oscillating term. For pulsed fields such as most fields of modern digital telecommunications this will be taking place constantly with every repeated pulse. The amplitude of the forced-oscillation ignoring the constant term in Eq. The force acting on the effective charge q of an S4 domain, via an oscillating single-valence free cation, is:r is the distance of the free ion from the effective charge of S4.
Each oscillating cation displaced by drinduces a force on each S4 sensor:. While in the case of a non-polarized applied field andin the case of a polarized applied field, the sum force on the channel sensor from all four cations, is:.
This is an even more crucial difference between polarized and unpolarized EMFs in regard to biological activity than the ability of interference. The displacement of one single-valence cation within the channel, necessary to exert this minimum force is calculated from Eq. Therefore, any external polarized oscillating EMF able to force free ions to oscillate with amplitudeis able to irregularly gate cation channels on cell membranes. For N of EMF-sources of the same polarization e.
N of parallel power lines the last value is divided by N according to Eq. Such minimum power frequency field intensity values are abundant in urban daily environments and even more close to high-voltage power transmission lines 7. As is evident from the described mechanism, the field does not gate the channel by forces exerted directly on the channel sensors. It is the mediation of the oscillating free ions in close proximity to the S4 channel sensors that allows such weak fields to be able to exert the necessary forces to gate the channel.
Thus, ELF electric fields emitted by mobile phones and base stations stronger than 0. This ELF intensity value is emitted by regular cell phones at distances up to a few meters and base stations at distances up to a few hundred meters 634 For N of mobile telephony antennas vertically oriented, the last value is divided by N according to Eq. We do not distinguish between externally applied EMFs and рЯ•∞ meaning from a guy induced ones within living tissue, especially in the case of ELF for the following reasons: 1.
Living tissue is not metal to shield from electric fields and certainly is not ferromagnetic metal Fe, Co, Ni to shield from magnetic fields.
Moreover, it is known that especially ELF fields cannot be easily shielded even by Faraday cages and in order to ificantly minimize them it is recommended to totally enclose them in closed metal boxes 6. Thus, ELF electric fields penetrate living tissue with certain degree of attenuation and magnetic fields penetrate with zero attenuation. Even in case that the ELF fields are ificantly attenuated in the inner tissues of a living body, the eyes, the brain, the skin cells, or the myri of nerve fiber terminals that end up on the outer epidermis, are directly exposed to the field intensities measured externally on the surface of the living tissue.
These thresholds are very close to those predicted by the present study. Except for direct electric field exposure by an external field, there can be an electric field within tissues induced by an externally applied oscillating magnetic one, which as explained penetrates living tissue with zero attenuation. Tuor et al.
Any location at equal distances from identical sources antennasin other words any location along the midperpendicular to the distance d between the two sources, is a location of constructive interference and increased field and wave intensities. As the of sources e. The result of field superposition at those locations are standing waves i. Within biological tissue, at those locations of constructive interference we can have increased biological activity due to the polarized EMFs.
Using the forced-oscillation mechanism 1920 we showed that the resultant force exerted on the S4 sensors of electrosensitive ion channels on cell membranes by several ions forced to oscillate on parallel planes and in phase by an applied polarized EMF and even more by constructively superimposed fields from several polarized EMF-sourcesis able to irregularly gate these channels.РЯ•∞ meaning from a guy
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